With CBD usage growing in popularity, you might have wondered, can CBD cause dry mouth? Is it one of the side effects? Read on to find out! Cannabis (CBD) consumption is currently legal for medicinal purposes widely in the UK, provided it has been EU-approved. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a chemical found in marijuana that does not contain tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive ingredient found in the cannabis plant that produces a certain high. Anecdotally Some people believe CBD oil is safe and well-tolerated. Read about the side effects you can expect and what to be aware of.
Can CBD cause dry mouth?
Dry mouth is a symptom often associated with the use of cannabis (marijuana). Also known by the terms ‘pasty mouth’ and ‘cotton mouth’, dry mouth can prove to be quite an unpleasant feeling. However, many people nowadays are wondering whether hemp-derived CBD can cause dry mouth as well? This post will answer that question, and explain what you can do.
Before we delve into these questions, let’s take a brief look into the science behind the dry mouth.
The science behind dry mouth
The scientific name for dry mouth or cotton mouth is Xerostomia. It is a reduced salivary flow that causes an unpleasant dry sensation in the mouth.
Before cannabis legalisation brought about a wide selection of products seen in pharmacies and shops today, recreational smoking was the primary method of cannabis use. In those times, it was believed that dry mouth was caused by the thick smoke that arose from burning cannabis.
However, as users began vaping cannabis, dry mouth persisted as a side effect. Gummies, oils, and capsules yielded the same results. Scientists thus began to study this problem. In 2006, Juan Pablo Prestifilippo and his colleagues in Buenos Aires, Argentina, began their search for potential causes of dry mouth.
Their study on cannabis-induced xerostomia is the most in-depth study on the subject to date. The researchers carried out experiments on male rats and found that cannabinoid receptors (type 1 and type 2) were located in specific locations in the submandibular glands. These glands are responsible for producing 60-67% of the saliva.
The researchers further discovered that the cannabinoid anandamide (AEA) attaches to these receptors and alters salivary production, resulting in hyposalivation (decreased saliva production). This was the primary reason for the dryness of the mouth.
Does CBD cause dry mouth?
To put it simply, it probably does. Although, it has been noted that THC in Cannabis is far more likely to cause dry mouth as compared to cannabidiol (CBD). However, CBD is not entirely exempt from this side effect. Many hemp-derived CBD oil users also report oral dryness as a side effect.
Moreover, there are a few studies that show that CBD might cause oral dryness. In 1986, one study noted that the side effects of oral CBD administration included dry mouth. Since then, many other studies have also noted cannabinoid-induced dryness of the mouth.
The 2006 study discussed above suggests that the use of cannabinoids such as CBD and THC may play a vital role in inhibiting saliva production. However, one thing still unclear from this study is whether CBD would yield the same results on its own. Therefore, more research is needed to confidently conclude whether CBD alone can cause dry mouth.
Is it dangerous for health?
It is important to understand that a certain level of saliva production is essential at all times. Saliva helps lubricate the mouth and enables us to taste the food, swallow and speak. It also protects the mouth, teeth, and throat from viruses, bacteria, and other unhealthy microorganisms. Saliva levels that are consistently low as a result of cannabis and CBD use can cause oral dryness. If left untreated, it can lead to other potential side effects, like:
- Sore throat
- Bad breath
- Tingling in the mouth
- Raw or red tongue
- Cracked lips
- Mouth sores
- Tooth decay
- Periodontal disease
CBD and dry mouth: What can I do about it?
If you are experiencing a dry mouth, there are several things you can do to help alleviate it. These include:
- Staying hydrated: Sipping water frequently will help mitigate this issue. Also, avoid alcohol-based beverages like beer or wine. These contain tannins that further dry out the mouth.
- Chewing sugar- free gum
- Maintaining a regimen of brushing teeth at least two times per day using fluoride enriched toothpaste.
- Reducing the intake of citrus-based food and alcohol-based breath sprays and mouthwash. These can further dry out the mouth.
- Sucking on ice cubes. These can help keep the saliva flowing and break the monotony of drinking water constantly.
- Eating foods that require prolonged chewing, such as beef jerky or dried fruit. These can help stimulate the production of saliva.
- Licking lollipops or sucking on sour flavoured hard candy. These actions greatly stimulate saliva production.
- Using cough medicines, which are also known as demulcents. These help to reduce mouth dryness by covering the mucous membranes with a dewy film.
- Drinking herbal tea also helps reduce the dry feeling in the throat.
In conclusion, the answer to the question, ‘Can CBD cause dry mouth?’, is yes, it might. There is strong anecdotal evidence from CBD users as well as some evidence from limited studies conducted on this topic. While dry mouth is majorly associated with cannabis use, hemp-derived CBD products are also seen to inhibit saliva production that causes this unpleasant condition. However, there is a need for further research on this topic to come to any definitive conclusion.
If you liked reading this, be sure to check our other blog: : The Ultimate Guide To CBD
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Can CBD cause dry mouth and what are the possible remedies?
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Can CBD cause dry mouth and what are the possible remedies?
- 4 min read
Cannabis (CBD) consumption is currently legal for medicinal purposes widely in the UK, provided it has been EU-approved. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a chemical found in marijuana that does not contain tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive ingredient found in the cannabis plant that produces a certain high. Anecdotally, prescription cannabidiol oil has been identified by numerous researches to be an effective treatment for a wide range of conditions, including Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, diabetes, and dental anxiety. This claim has been backed by the Harvard Medical School that reiterates its health benefits.
Currently, the only CBD (derived from an industrial hemp strain) that has been approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) is a prescription cannabidiol oral solution called Epidyolex. Although CBD usage has been seeing a persistently rise of users, it cannot be disregarded that cannabis or CBD may be responsible for one of the most common and potentially deteriorative oral problems, dry mouth.
Is CBD safe to use?
The use of CBD oil is typically advocated by the pharmaceuticals as a health supplement. The NCBI published a review paper on the safety and side effects of cannabidiol that demonstrates that controlled CBD administration is safe and non-toxic in humans and animals. It also does not induce changes in food intake nor does it affect physiological parameters like heart rate, body temperature, or blood pressure. High doses up to 1,600 mg/day of CBD has been reportedly well-tolerated in humans.
Furthermore, CBD is generally not habit-forming. According to a report by the World Health Organization, “CBD appears to have little effect on conditioned place preference or intracranial self-stimulation… [It] exhibits no effect indicative of any abuse or dependence potential.”
Does CBD cause dry mouth?
CBD has been condemned by many to be a prime culprit of dry mouth. A common complaint among cannabis users is the unpleasant feeling of dry or sticky mouth, often referred to as cottonmouth or “the pasties” that does not go away. Cottonmouth (also known as dry mouth or clinically called xerostomia) is usually not a major issue when you limit the use of cannabis. However, the intensity of oral health problems may significantly rise with the increased intake of cannabis.
Some of the commonly occurring symptoms of cottonmouth are:
- Bad breath (halitosis)
- Persistent thirst
- Hoarseness of voice and sore throat
- Inflamed, red tongue
- Cracked lips
- Tingling or burning sensation in the mouth
- Red, swollen, tender, bleeding gums (gingivitis)
- Sores at the corners of the mouth
- Mouth ulcers and canker sores
The science behind CBD-induced dry mouth
Originally dry mouth associated with CBD consumption was attributed to the harsh smoke irrigating the permeable oral membranes to cause irritation and decreased salivary flow, but upon rigorous studies, it has been understood that the natural response of the salivary glands to CBD components factors in much of the cause for dry mouth. Cannabinoids, the active components in cannabis, interacts with the human Endocannabinoid System (ECS), a complex biological network of receptors and neurotransmitters distributed all over the body. The ECS regulates different cognitive and physiological processes in the body.
Our submandibular salivary glands (located under the jaw bone) are responsible for 70% of healthy saliva production in the mouth. These glands contain cannabinoid receptors to which cannabinoids begin to bind when you imbibe cannabis or CBD. This prevents your ECS from communicating to your parasympathetic nervous system to institute active saliva production. This causes poor saliva production in the mouth with the use of CBD.
Remedies of dry mouth
Cannabis frequenters may be used to feeling a little parched when smoking or doing edibles. However, proper caution must be taken to de-escalate this seemingly minute dental issue before it proliferates into something critical.
American Marijuana published an article directing CBD users to follow these remedies for cottonmouth:
- Sip water, ideally through a straw to keep yourself hydrated.
- Chew St Andrew’s Trust xylitol infused dry mouth chewing gum to stimulate saliva production.
- Chew on dry fruits, citrus fruits, or beef jerky to increase saliva production.
- Use lozenges and toothpaste that promote saliva production. Try St Andrew’s Trust Dry Mouth Lozenges or toothpaste to get rid of your dry mouth.
- Suck on a lollipop, take a cough drop, or some hard candy.
- Try demulcent cough drops that coat the mucous membranes with a moist film to prevent the feeling of dry mouth.
- Drink herbal teas to rid yourself of a sore or irritated throat.
Avoid these foods if you have dry mouth
- Black and green teas (anything containing caffeine) can dry your mouth further
- Salty crackers and snacks may worsen cottonmouth
- Alcohol causes dehydration, further drying out the mouth
- Tobacco products can lead to lowered saliva production
In the wake of the booming cannabis market, many experts advise CBD users to take stringent actions against dry mouth caused by CBD to mitigate the condition. Be wary that today’s minor inconveniences may become tomorrow’s major headaches if you choose to do nothing. The American Dental Association also encourages all CBD consumers to visit the dentist regularly and maintain proper oral hygiene by brushing twice a day with St Andrew’s Trust dry mouth ingredients and fluoride enriched toothpaste.
7 CBD Oil Side Effects You Should Watch Out For
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CBD oil is believed to be generally safe and well-tolerated, but it is not free of side effects. Read on to learn which adverse effects you should watch out for when using CBD oil, how the delivery form influences them, and what you can do to reduce your risk.
CBD Oil Side Effects
First, it is important to remember that CBD oil is considered experimental and investigational and far more clinical studies are needed before we can make any firm conclusions about its supposed benefits .
Similarly, it’s an insufficiently investigated supplement with a relatively unknown safety profile. The list of side effects listed in this article is, therefore, not a definite one.
So, make sure to speak with your doctor before starting on a CBD oil regimen.
With the recent legalization of CBD oil in many states worldwide, its popularity is booming and people are taking it for not only its FDA-approved use for seizures, but also conditions such as :
An advantage of CBD oil is that it’s considered generally safer and causes fewer adverse effects than the drugs typically used for these conditions. Chronic doses of up to 1500 mg/day were tolerated well in multiple studies [3+, 4].
Unlike THC, CBD doesn’t cause behavioral and psychological side effects. What’s more, it may even reduce some of them such as anxiety, psychosis, and memory loss [5, 6, 7, 8].
CBD oil is believed to cause fewer side effects than THC and most prescription drugs, even at high doses.
Nevertheless, there are some potential side effects of CBD oil that you should watch out for. Below is a detailed overview of the most common ones.
1) Dry Mouth
Whether you use them for recreational or medicinal purposes, cannabis products will often make your mouth feel as if it were stuffed with cotton balls. Almost 12% of 1500 people responding to a survey about CBD use experienced dry mouth, making it the most common adverse effect .
Stimulation of the CB1 and CB2 receptors in the salivary glands reduces saliva secretion, which makes the mouth feel dry. The well-known cannabis compound THC activates these receptors directly. In turn, CBD raises the levels of an activator naturally produced in the body – the cannabinoid anandamide [9, 10, 11, 12].
2) Digestive Issues
Both CBD oil supplements and the FDA-approved CBD medicine Epidiolex have been reported to cause digestive issues such as [2, 4]:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Increased or reduced appetite
- Weight loss or gain
Because preliminary research suggests that CBD improves rather than causes nausea and diarrhea, these effects most likely result from the irritating effects of other ingredients (e.g., carrier oils) on the bowels [13, 14, 15].
Alternatively, the loose regulation of supplements may allow for excessive CBD levels in products or harmful contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals, and solvents [16+, 17].
In turn, the endocannabinoid system has a role in promoting appetite. The mixed effects of CBD on appetite and weight seen in different studies may be due to its dual effect: it blocks the CB1 and CB2 receptors but boosts the levels of their activator anandamide [18, 19, 11].
If you experience digestive issues from using CBD oil, tell your doctor. He or she may recommend reducing the dose or shifting to another brand.
Contaminants and additives are likely responsible for the digestive side effects of low-quality CBD oil: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and appetite and weight changes.
3) Drowsiness and Fatigue
People taking CBD oil often report feeling sleepy and tired. Indeed, this side effect was observed in early clinical trials and one of the most common uses of CBD oil is to improve sleep disorders [20+].
If the symptoms are very severe, you shouldn’t drive or operate heavy machinery.
The effect of CBD on sleep seems to be biphasic: high doses may increase sleeping time, lower amounts may promote wakefulness. Additionally, levels of endocannabinoid receptors depend on the circadian rhythm. This may explain why CBD tends to cause drowsiness later in the day but has the opposite effect in the morning [21, 22, 23].
CBD oil may make you feel sleepy, especially if you take high doses at night. Low morning doses, on the contrary, seem to increase wakefulness.
High doses of CBD lowered blood pressure in a small trial on 9 people. In turn, THC seems to have a more complex effect: it slightly raises blood pressure in people lying down but increases the risk of sudden blood pressure drops when standing up [24, 25+].
As a result, a common adverse effect of CBD – both alone and with equal amounts of THC (nabiximols) – is feeling dizzy and light-headed [26, 27, 28].
If your blood pressure drops too much, you may faint. The risk is especially high in people diagnosed with low blood pressure or on blood pressure medications – such as diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and beta-blockers. These people should be especially cautious with CBD oil and never try it out without discussing it with their doctor.
CBD oil, alone or with THC, may reduce blood pressure. This can make you feel dizzy and light-headed, especially if you are prone to blood pressure drops.
5) Possible Liver Damage
Several trials testing CBD for seizures found possible liver damage (high transaminases ALT and AST) in 9-25% of the people. The risk increased with the dose and was highest in people also taking the anti-seizure drug valproate, which is known to cause liver injuries [29+, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34].
Similarly, CBD caused signs of liver toxicity (high transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin) in mice and dogs. However, the doses were generally higher than those used in human trials [35, 36, 37].
Make sure to talk to your doctor, especially if you are taking valproate, and never exceed the recommended CBD oil dose to reduce your risk of liver damage.
CBD oil may cause liver damage at very high doses and in people prescribed the anti-seizure drug valproate.
CBD is often used to curb anxiety, although research suggests it has “inverted U-shaped” effects: moderate doses, but not low or high amounts, may be effective for a range of anxiety disorders and stressful situations [38, 39].
In contrast, very high doses may even trigger anxiety and irritability. This was the case in 7-9% of the children in 2 clinical trials using CBD for seizures and autism [40, 41].
The effect probably involves the TRPV1 receptor, the activation of which increases the brain’s response to stressful situations .
CBD boosts the naturally-produced cannabinoid anandamide. While moderate anandamide levels activate CB1 receptors and curb anxiety, high amounts may worsen it by binding to TRPV1. CBD also activates this receptor directly, further contributing to the potential anxiety-triggering effects [43, 44, 11, 45].
7) Immune Suppression
CBD may reduce the immune response. It prevents T cells from dividing, migrating to inflammation sites, and producing pro-inflammatory cytokines. This may be beneficial in people with autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or multiple sclerosis [46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52].
The downside of blocking the immune response is that it may make people with weakened immune systems more prone to infections. Thus, people on immunosuppressants or with conditions such as HIV, diabetes, and Down syndrome might want to avoid it .
CBD oil seems to reduce the immune response, which may make people with a weak immune system more prone to infections.
CBD didn’t damage the kidneys in clinical trials. In fact, researchers believed it protected against kidney injury and inflammation in numerous animal studies [54, 55, 56, 57, 58]. Remember that larger and better designed clinical trials are needed before these findings are conclusive.
Though more clinical trials are needed, the current evidence suggests CBD oil will not harm your kidneys at normal doses.
On the other hand, people with kidney disease should probably avoid THC-containing medical marijuana without consulting a doctor.
According to a recent review, THC may worsen kidney health and increase urination by activating CB1 receptors. Remember that, unlike THC, CBD blocks these receptors. However, CBD may indirectly activate them by increasing anandamide levels in the body [59+].
Lastly, avoid synthetic cannabinoids at all costs (products like “spice” and “K2” sold in smoke shops). These chemicals caused sudden and severe kidney injury in several cases [59+].
Unlike THC and synthetic cannabinoids, CBD oil probably does not cause side effects on the kidneys; some researchers believe it might even be protective.
Are You at Risk of CBD Oil Side Effects?
CBD altered the levels of two drug transporters in placental cells. This suggests that taking CBD oil during pregnancy may increase the exposure of the fetus to any drugs that the mother takes. Pregnant women should avoid CBD oil in any case, since safety data are lacking .
Taking THC-containing CBD oil during pregnancy and breastfeeding is particularly dangerous, since THC may reduce growth and cause brain developmental anomalies in babies [61+].
Because there are no studies testing its safety in children below 2 years old, it’s better to avoid giving them CBD oil unless prescribed by a doctor.
CBD is thought to be safe in older children, but they may be more sensitive to THC and toxic contaminants such as heavy metals and pesticides than adults. Be sure to use high-quality, THC-free CBD in children and consult the doctor first.
Pregnant women and children under 2 years old should avoid CBD oil due to the lack of safety data; THC during pregnancy is known to be dangerous.
Most drugs are broken down by liver enzymes. Among them, cytochrome (CYP) P450 plays a key role. A single CBD dose blocks several CYP enzymes, such as:
By doing so, it may slow the breakdown of several drugs and enhance their effects [62, 63, 64, 65, 66].
Indeed, CBD reduced the breakdown of the sedative hexobarbital, the anti-seizure drug clobazam, and the blood thinner warfarin in humans. It had the same effect on the immunosuppressant cyclosporin and the cannabis compound THC in cells [67, 68, 69, 70].
On the other hand, repeated CBD doses can increase the levels of some enzymes of this group and reduce the effects of the drugs they break down [71, 72, 73, 74].
Plus, CBD itself is broken down by CYP enzymes, especially by CYP34A and CYP2C19. Drugs that block these enzymes (such as ketoconazole and ritonavir) will enhance its effects, while those that activate them (such as phenobarbital and rifampicin) will have the opposite effect [75, 4].
If you are on prescription medication and plan to use CBD oil, ask your doctor about potential interactions and dose readjustment. Additionally, avoid combining CBD oil with grapefruit or other supplements that block the same liver enzymes (such as St John’s wort or watercress).
CBD oil can block or activate liver enzymes that metabolize drugs. This may increase the side effects of both CBD oil and the medication you’re taking.
How Does the Delivery Form Influence CBD Oil Side Effects?
While rapid-release forms (mouth sprays and oil tinctures) deliver CBD directly into your bloodstream, slow-release forms (capsules, edibles, and teas) have to pass your digestive system first. This means their ingredients may irritate your bowels and give you nausea and diarrhea [76+, 77].
However, rapid-release forms will release CBD faster, so you may experience both wanted and unwanted effects sooner [76+, 77].
And since tinctures and sprays are directly applied in the mouth, they will quickly reach the salivary glands and cause dry mouth. Mouth sprays may also cause a stinging sensation and even burns, especially if they contain alcohol [9, 78].
Capsules and edibles are more likely to cause digestive side effects, while mouth sprays and tinctures more frequently cause dry mouth.
Vapes bypass the digestive system without irritating your bowels, but they may trigger the other adverse effects faster [76+, 77].
Vaping is considered safer than smoking cigarettes or joints because the oil is heated at lower temperatures that produce fewer toxic byproducts [76+ 79].
However, the additives used as flavorings and thinning agents in vaping oils may still pose some hazards. Although they are normally food-grade, they may release harmful compounds (including the cancer-causing formaldehyde) when vaporized. Their heavy use may lead to [80, 79, 81+]:
- Dry throat
- Lung injury
- Fat particles entering the lungs (lipoid pneumonia – rare)
For instance, one man developed severe lung damage from vaping CBD oil [82+].
Creams & Gels
Creams and gels act locally on the application site and don’t release CBD into the gut or bloodstream. This means they will not cause most of the adverse effects previously described [76+].
However, they may cause allergic reactions with itching, redness, and rashes on the skin. It’s important to note that the reactions can be caused by either CBD or other ingredients in the formulation [83+, 84+].
How to Reduce Your Risk of Side Effects from CBD Oil
1) Drink More Water
The best way to reduce dry mouth when using CBD oil is to drink plenty of water and other hydrating liquids before, during, and after consumption.
2) Find Additive-Free Products
You can reduce the risk of digestive issues by choosing forms that bypass the gut and directly release CBD into your bloodstream such as vapes, mouth sprays, and oil tinctures. High-quality oils without additives may also irritate your bowels less.
3) Take it Before Sleep
If you feel drowsy or light-headed after taking CBD oil, you may need to reduce the dose or take it only before sleep.
4) Increase Wakefulness Naturally
Drinking coffee or tea will help you both stay awake and raise your blood pressure, but it also causes many side effects. Try to get more sunlight first thing in the morning, as it will energize you and help you get better sleep at night. We talk about other natural ways to increase wakefulness in this post.
5) Support Your Liver
Avoid combining CBD with the anti-seizure drug valproate. Additionally, make sure not to exceed the dose and regularly monitor your liver function to reduce your risk of liver damage. Eggs (choline), artichokes, NAC, and probiotics also support liver health. Read more foods and supplements that are good for the liver here.
6) Don’t Take Megadoses
Only very high CBD doses may cause irritability. Make sure not to exceed the dose and try reducing it if you notice this symptom.
7) Monitor Your Immune Response
If you have a weakened immune system, you should consult your doctor before taking CBD oil. You may need to avoid CBD or take a lower dose.
Additionally, you may also want to look into balancing your Th1/Th2 immune response. If you have a slightly weaker immune system and are prone to allergies, you are probably Th2-dominant.
To reduce your risk of CBD oil side effects, avoid products with additives, drink plenty of water, get sunlight during the day, and support your liver and gut health.
Always make sure to speak with your physician before starting on a CBD oil regimen.
CBD oil is thought to be safe and most people seem to tolerate it well.
Low-quality products may contain additives and toxins that can irritate the lungs when vaped and the gut when taken orally. Choose high-quality products to reduce your risk.
Additionally, CBD oil can make you feel drowsy and lightheaded. If you feel tired after taking CBD oil, lower your dose or use it only before sleep. Look to also increase your wakefulness naturally by getting more sunlight during the day.
High doses may damage the liver, but likely only in people taking the anti-seizure medication valproate. Monitor your liver enzymes and look into natural ways to protect your liver.
Avoid CBD oil if you have a weak immune system, as it might make you more prone to infection.
If you take prescription drugs, consult your doctor. Many drugs can interact with CBD oil and increase the risk of side effects.
Pregnant women and children should avoid CBD oil until more safety data are available.
Some people have genes that make them more likely to experience inflammation. Check out SelfDecode’s Inflammation DNA Wellness Report for genetic-based diet, lifestyle, and supplement tips that can help reduce inflammation levels. The recommendations are personalized based on YOUR DNA.
About the Author
Carlos spent 9 years in the laboratory investigating mineral transport in plants. He then started working as a freelancer, mainly in science writing, editing, and consulting. Carlos is passionate about learning the mechanisms behind biological processes and communicating science to both academic and non-academic audiences. He strongly believes that scientific literacy is crucial to maintain a healthy lifestyle and avoid falling for scams.
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